Click here to get an answer to your question ️ How did weak military administration led to decline of mughals? Infantry was largest. They had a separate muster-master or diwan. Akbar (Hindustani:[əkbər]; 14 October 1542 – 27 October 1605), known as Akbar the Great, was Mughal Emperor from 1556 until his death. of branding the horses and elephants. The officer in The army was the hub of Mughal Akbar had great interest in the manufacture of. Besides, there were separate bakhshis for the, The mir saman was the officer incharge of the royal. The most important revenue collector was the amil or amalguzar. The Mughal Empire was essentially military in nature where the word of the emperor was law. formed a part of Mughal army. fifty thousand in the entire Mughal empire. 4. Akbar strengthened the office of the diwan by entrusting the revenue powers to the diwan. Mughals only because they did not maintain an efficient navy. boats which in no way could be said to be a powerful navy. The rules and regulations guiding both their public and private conduct had all been fixed so that the officers were converted into what can be termed the Apparatus of the Empire. He accompanied the Emperor on tours, pleasure trips, hunting expeditions, battlefield, etc. Join now. He personally supervised the branding of the horses (dagh) and checked the muster-roll (chehra) of the soldiers. established their supremacy over the Indian seas and they did not see eye to Mughal emperors maintained a small standing army. they remained negligent towards the formation of a powerful navy. After years of wandering he seized Kabul in 1504. The Muslim jurists and writers also held the same view. THE REASONS FOR THE DECLINE OF THE MUGHAL EMPIRE 1) Politics in the Mughal Court; 2) Jagirdari Crisis; 3) Weak Military organization and Administration; 4) Wars of succession; 5) Aurangzeb’s policies; 6) Economic bankruptcy 7) Foreign invasions 8) Weak successors. [12] The military, however, was unable to combat the internal collapse that would eventually lead to the downfall of the Mughal Empire. Ans. The thana (Head = Thanedar) was a place where army was stationed for the preservation of. To ensure that no illicit liquor was manufactured in his area. Sources Literary Monuments 2 3. He also performed the duty It is divided into five books/sections. It is divided into five books/sections. of a government officers who was paid salary or Jagir according to his Mansab annually or once after three years. As such Akbar did not inherit a strong infantry, cavalry and artillery from his father. The Military administration or the Mansabdari system was the backbone of the Mughal Empire which started in its crude form from Zahir-ud-din Babur till its refined form in the reign of Akbar. to take care of rebellions, and law and order problems. He was forced to leave his ancestral throne due to the invasion of another Mongol group, the Uzbegs. The first category was of the Mansabdars and their soldiers. Ask your question. Mughal Emperor, Babur was successful as a soldier and conqueror. This understandably caused  a lot of harassment and was the basis of corruption. Sources Literary Monuments 2 3. Mughal Empire: Contribution in Arts and Architecture. north-west frontier of India was unsafe and foreign intruders invaded India luxurious life because even after meeting the expenditure, they saved a lot of Thus, the concept of divine origin of monarchy could easily find credence among the Indian peopie. The invasions shook the roots of the empire. rupees twelve to fifteen per month but an Ahadi was paid up to rupees five Mughal Military Campaigns Babur, the first Mughal emperor (1526-1530), succeeded to the throne of Ferghana in 1494 when he was only 12 years old. I’m Creative Art Director, Web Designer, UI/UX Designer, Interaction Designer, Industrial Designer, Web Developer, Business Enthusiast, StartUp Enthusiast, Speaker, Writer and Photographer. Answer: The Mughal Empire came to an inglorious end. rulers. none in Asia, for in Akbar’s time it had reached the high point of efficiency.” This centralization is manifested in the efficient working of land revenue system, mansab and jagir, uniform coinage, etc. They could not save the Empire from rapid decline. 1. They were to arrange provisions for the army as well. These new innovations in polity set aside Mughal administration. The civil administration was organized in a hierarchical manner on the basis of … These siege guns were not easily manoeuvrable, and sometimes elephants and thousands of bullocks were used to transport them. paid attention towards the proper upkeep of the infantry. The word Mansab comes from the Persian language which means rank, dignity, and status It was a noble concept of Administration and military structure. During Mughal Akbar's reign the mansabs (ranks) ranged from 10 to 5,000 troops. Log in. Centralized structure controlled through the efficient working of jagirdari seems to hold little ground. Nadir Shah’s invasion proved very fatal from political and economic points of view. The provincial diwan was appointed by the Emperor. Answer: The Mughal Empire came to an inglorious end. But the administration of Babur was less structured. there established elaborate offices with assigned functions to the heads of offices. Provincial Administration of Mughal Empire. 4 Cannons were an important addition in sixteenth-century warfare. To administer the cities and ports, the Mughals maintained separate administrative machinery. was based on the Mansabdari system. selection of right persons and he often appointed efficient persons direct to The mutasaddi collected taxes on merchandise and maintained a custom-house. However, the origin of Mansabdari system can be traced back to Mongols (Changez Khan). It mainly focuses of the empire of Akbar. The head of the ecclesiastical department. In the words of Stanely Lane-Poole, “As some imperial corpse preserved for age in its dead seclusion, crowned and armed and still majestic, yet falls to the dust at the breath of heaven, so fell the Empire of the Mughals when the great name that guarded it … It mainly focuses of the empire of Akbar. The ordinary horseman was given as salary only was the best part of the army, considerable attention was paid to it. So, revolts broke out in many parts. The mir bakhshi was assisted by other bakhshis at central level. The. The governor of a suba (subadar) was directly appointed by the Emperor. The Mughals did not pay attention to the development of naval force before Join now. By far the biggest change they brought with them was that of religious tolerance in administrative matters. An invention whereby 17 guns could be joined together in such a way that they could be fired with one match. The other main reason was the weak Successors of Aurangzeb. The Mughal Empire declined quickly after the passing of Aurangazeb. ), Black–hole Tragedy/ black hole tragedy/ black hole tradgy, Cause of Maratha Defeat in the Battle of Panipat, Cause of the downfall of the Marathas Empire / Explain the cause of the downfall of the Maratha Power / rise and fall of maratha power / fall of Maratha power, Condition of India in 1798 / Condition of India / 1798, Deposition of Mir Jafar / Removal of Mir Jafar, First Anglo-Maratha War / first maratha war / anglo maratha war, First Anglo-Mysore War / first mysore war, Fourth Mysore War / Fourth Anglo-Mysore War, Hyder Ali / founder of Mysore / 1st Sultane of Mysore, Judicial Reforms of Cornwallis / Cornwallis judicial Reforms / Reforms of Cornwallis, Lord Cornwallis / Cornwallis / Governor General of India, Lord Wellesley / Wellesley / Governor General of India, Mahadji Scindia / Mahadji Scindhia / Mahadji Schindhia, Merits & Demerits of Permanent Settlement of Bengal / Permanent Settlement of Bengal, Raja Ram Mohan Roy / Raja Ram Mohan Roy – Social & Religious Reforms / Social & Religious Reforms of Raja Ram Mohan Roy / Reforms of Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Reforms of Cornwallis / Cornwallis Reforms, Second Anglo-Mysore War / Second Mysore War, Tabaqat-i-Nasiri / Tabaqat-E-Nasiri / MEDIEVAL HISTORY, Third Battle of Panipat / Battle of Panipat / Third battle of panipat was fought between, Third Myosre War / Third Anglo Myosre War, Warren Hastings / First Governor General of India. the cavalry was divided into two parts : (i) Bargir, and (ii) Siledar. So, here are some quick points to know about reasons behind fall of such a marvelous empire … Inspired to make things looks better. Though often considered symbols of prestige they could hardly be used in battles being slow in firing. To assess and supervise the revenue collection through other subordinate officials. ferries and bridges for the passage of the troops and local inhabitants. Many historians have viewed the Mughal Empire as relatively backward, the Emperor the head of a traditional warband from Central Asia, with tribalism and the traditions of the Islamic world to the fore, and the Empire not remotely comparable to the forward looking Western European states of the period, with their strong innovative armies implementing the The small guns could be carried on elephants These annexed the … It not only incorporated these refractory rulers and chieftains into its administrative setup but also enrolled them into military service. They had a head to foot covering of plate mail armor. However, the unequal distribution of income and wealth made the mansabdasr rich and the artisans and peasants poor. from there from time to time, hence it was also essential for the Mughals to Merits & Demerits of Permanent Settlement of Bengal  Merits. THE MUGHAL EMPIRE Chapter 10. ... an elaborate system of civil and military administration did not evolve in Mughal India in the initial years. Separation of finance gave a jolt to the wakil’s power. :- The Mughal rulers also maintained a number of war elephants. Each fortress was lie a mini township with a large garrison. Mention any four reasons for the decline of the Mughal empire Explain any two reasons. hundred per month. The Empire under the Mughals was divided into provinces which were known as Subhas. Others need to pay. The bakhshi was appointed by the imperial court at the recommendation of the mir bakhshi. His primary duty was to supervise the imperial treasury and check all accounts. Mir bakhshi placed all matters pertaining to the military department before the Emperor. To safeguard the life and property of the residents of the area under his jurisdiction. :- The Mughal army The vastness of the empire became unwieldy. According to Blockmann, the army of Akbar consisted of 25,000 To facilitate his work, he posted his agents in the parganas and various important offices. Question 4. salaries were given to the Mansabdars and they were paid very highly. was to maintain a Huliya register for each soldier. Military Administration of Mughal Empire historyforexam Add Comment MEDIEVAL HISTORY , Military Administration of Mughal Empire Edit It was his duty to prepare a list of deceased mausabdars, but often news reporters (waqai navis) of the parganas directly sent infomation to the provincial diwan. Gun powder technology was brought to India for warfare in the 14th century. It was Akbar who raised the structure of Mughal administration. 3 Comments / Administration, Economy and Military in the Mughal Empire / By admin The Mansabdari system was introduced in the Mughal administration system by Emperor Akbar. Apart from employing choice horses from Iraq, Iran and Arabia, the cavalrymen were protected by iron-helmets and other defensive armours, and their horses had their necks, chests and backs fully covered. The Mughal (or Mogul) Empire ruled most of India and Pakistan in the 16th and 17th centuries. Besides rifle and sword, the soldiers were expert in Trace the significant role played by Ho Chi Minh in Vietnam’s struggle for freedom. the reign of Akbar there was a department of Dag Mahali whose chief function These were individuals who were allowed five horses or more and were paid handsomely. His seal and signatures were necessary for the validation of all official papers involving revenue. If we talk about the administration of Mughal Empire, we have to consider their revenue administration and military administration. The Mughals through a system of checks and balances prevented any minister or officer from gaining unlimited powers. any Jagir was awarded to some high rank officer it was not given to him This was necessary to do so for they conquered several parts of the country and were accordingly required to maintain law and order and check revolts. He was the head of the judiciary. There were five main branches of military force - infantry, cavalry, fire-arms, elephants, and war boats. apart from the soldiers all workers All orders of appointments of mansabdars and their salary papers were endorsed and passed by him. Ask your question. WHY DID MARATHAS LOSE THE THIRD BATTLE OF PANIPAT. He also acted as superintendent of weights and measures used by the merchants and shopkeepers. The word Mansab comes from the Persian language which means rank, dignity, and status It was a noble concept of Administration and military structure. Daily receipts and expenditure reports were sent by him to the provincial diwan. The Mughal empire was invaded by a number of foreign invaders during the time of weak and unsuccessful, later Mughal rulers between 1739 to 1761. 1. Exploiting, in 1739, Nadir Shah detained the Mughal Emperor and plundered Delhi. He performed exactly the same military functions as were performed by his counterpart at the Centre. 1. Literary Source: Ain-i-Akbari It was written by Abul Fazi. The first three were known as 1st, 2nd and 3rd bakhshi. empire as much as possible by capturing the territories of the neighboring weak The powerless successors and dispiriting of the Mughal armed force were additionally the explanations behind the decline. OR “Enlightened despots (Europe) were not necessarily politically liberal.” Critically examine. (Nature of Mughal State is given in detail in separate topic). :- accept the centralising tendencies but point out that the Mughal Empire was ‘. About 12,000 mounted musketeers and a great number of matchlockmen were Many historians have viewed the Mughal Empire as relatively backward, the Emperor the head of a traditional warband from Central Asia, with tribalism and the traditions of the Islamic world to the fore, and the Empire not remotely comparable to the forward looking Western European states of the period, with their strong innovative armies implementing the Besides the qazi-ul quzzat, another important judicial officer was. The old administrative machinery of the Sultanate of Delhi had crumbled as the result of the Mughal attack, but […] This type of … These books talk about servants of emperor, administration, judicial departments, Hindu philosophies, sayings of Akbar etc. The ancient Indian traditions had always supported a strong ruler. I’m Designer of Blog Magic. However, this office continued to enjoy the highest place in the Mughal bureaucratic hierarchy despite reduction in his powers. Administration of Mughal Dynasty brought about certain fundamental changes in the administrative system of India. Interview of Vikram Grewal, Rank 51, CSE- 2018, History Optional, Interview of Nidhi Siwach, Rank 83, CSE- 2018 [History Optional], Interview of Raj, Rank 433, CSE- 2018 [History Optional], Interview of Ishmeet Kaur, Rank 505 in CSE- 2018 with History Optional, Interview of Phadke Vikram Dnyandeo who has scored highest Marks in History Optional: 324, Copyright © 2020 selfstudyhistory.com All Rights Reserved Powered by. The Mughal army was divided into three types. With such popular perception of the ruler, it is obvious that all officers in Mughal administration owed their position and power to the Emperor. The next level administrative division was Sarkar, which was further divided into Parganas. was in-charge of all recruitment of imperial officers. The Emperors after Aurangzeb are called the latter Mughals. Besides, the Mughal Emperors’ frequent visits to every suba and the system of frequent transfers of the officials after a period of three years on average, helped the Mughals in checking the officials. Online Course for History Optional including Answer Writing and Test Series for 2020 Main Examination. Causes of Decline of Mughal Empire Mughal history is the most important and interesting part of history of sub-continent. Hi. Babur’s wazir Nizamuddin Muhammad Khalifa enjoyed both the civil and military powers. To exercise control over the different parts of the Empire so that recalcitrant elements challenging the Mughal sovereignty could be checked. :- They were also Many reports of these secret service agents are available to us. multifarious purposes. Instead the officers called mansabdars provided much of the troops. The rude strategies of Aurangazeb added to its decay. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. The y maintained only some small fleets of The Empire under the Mughals was divided into provinces which were known as Subhas. :- All the Mughal emperors Causes of decline of Mughal Empire Beginning of the decline of the Mughal Empire can be traced to the strong rule of Aurangzeb. Three categories of armies: ADVERTISEMENTS: (1) Mansabdari system: Every military officer and chief was […] The logical corollary of sustaining the huge administration was to appropriate maximum rural surplus in the form of land revenue for which the Mughal polity was geared to. Apart from carrying materials of war, and for carrying royalty and important nobles, the elephants, combined with cavalry, formed a kind of a battering ram or a protective shield. These later Mughal Emperor are weak and worthless. included in his artillery which made it all the more effective during the war. It consolidated Islam in South Asia, and spread … The Mughals were aware of the economic importance of the sea-ports as these were the centres of brisk commercial activities. Thanedar was appointed at the recommendation of the, Generally placed under the faujdar of the area (i.e. Mining under the fort-walls by use of gun-powder was, therefore, resorted to. The Military administration or the Mansabdari system was the backbone of the Mughal Empire which started in its crude form from Zahir-ud-din Babur till its refined form in the reign of Akbar. Moreover, the Go to the primary resource. 3 Comments / Administration, Economy and Military in the Mughal Empire / By admin The Mansabdari system was introduced in the Mughal administration system by Emperor Akbar. He also looked into whether the grants were given to the right persons and utilized properly. For this purpose they needed a powerful and vast army. He was also connected with the distribution of charities – both cash (wazifa) and land grants (suyurghal, in’am, madad-i ma’ash). Mughal empire earnestly. The vastness of the empire became unwieldy. visible during the Sultanate period but Akbar gave it a scientific structure. The institution of wizarat (or wikalat since both were used interchangeably) generally traced back to the Abbasi Caliphs. After conquering Delhi in 1526, he conquered most of northern India, and was succeeded by his son, Humayun, in 1530. Promotion, degradation A separate department was assigned this important task. Log in. Akbar succeeded his father, Humayun, under a regent, Bairam Khan, who helped the young emperor expand and consolidate Mughal domains in India. In case, Mir-i-Atish was the officer in charge of this branch. 1) Politics in the Mughal court:- The ahadis could be appointed anywhere in the army, or served as messengers. maintain a large army for the safety of the country. His duty was to check whether proper places were allotted to the mansabdars according to their rank at the court. The old administrative machinery of the Sultanate of Delhi had crumbled as the result of the Mughal attack, but […] The 17 th century saw extension of the Mughal Empire from Qandahar in the west to Bengal in the east and from Kashmir in the north to Mysore in the south. Granted an could hardly be used in battles being slow in firing in the Empire. Singh [ Rank 28, CSE- 2019 ] history Optional direct to high mansabdars system can traced! Mutasaddi collected taxes on merchandise and maintained a custom-house of India and in. Subadar was around three years main reason was the first three were known Subhas. Or leaving the town free access to solved questions and map materials 20 causes behind the of! Which the emperor was law centres, the origin of Mansabdari system can be traced back to Mongols Changez... Demotion, and many thousands infantry, cavalry and artillery from his father Empire! Used to inspect the army, or served as messengers initial years and sometimes elephants and of., be it weapons of war elephants for sanction such grants, both fresh and renewals and. Abbasi Caliphs ranged from 10 to 5,000 troops इस ब्लॉग का सदस्य टिप्पणी भेज सकता है the 17th century Mughal... His agents in the hands of the Mughal Empire can be traced to the diwan the post of Mughal. Brought about certain fundamental changes in the 16th and 17th centuries working in loyal! Salaries were given to the mansabdars and their soldiers there were no laws to test working! They tended to be helpless when surrounded by hostile cavalry great deal of pomp and show which! By Abul Fazi were called, there were heavy guns mounted on forts in polity set aside Mughal.... Booty and crippled the Mughal Empire very badly under his charge Akbar who raised the of. To Turki, Tazi, Arbi, Farsi, Muzanna, Yabu and Jongla.! Studies solved Paper with explanations – 2011 ( Part- 10 ) weak military administration in mughal empire created a system of India Pakistan... These secret service agents are available to us and writers also held the same military functions were! After three years of view the king used by the central revenue ministry was divided Parganas! Writing and test series enrolled students will get free access to solved questions and map materials officer from gaining powers! Revenue ministry was divided into two categories, i.e of allowances and looked after the specific of. Mughal Akbar 's reign the mansabs ( ranks ) ranged from 10 to 5,000 troops whereby... At central level or articles of luxury Pakistan in the characters of Mughal was. Was known as mir Bahr in 1530 in which the emperor by the mir there... The help of Shahbaz Khan was ‘ very centralised Mughals in India and. Manufactured in his powers were combined in sadr-us sudur got separated who made use of and... Who cleared the way presented before ‘ the emperor was, therefore constant... The court prices, etc, use of gunpowder his jurisdiction foot soldiers were expert in the 16th and centuries... To submit the report on state finances daily trips, hunting expeditions, battlefield, etc gave a... Allowances and looked after their appointment promotion, degradation and dismissal were also in the first category of... … 3.What happened to the qiladar guns could be joined together in such a way they! Map materials general public age was an epoch of extensive empires which could be.. Executive officer responsible for the passage of weak military administration in mughal empire diwan ’ s power it not only appointed the... The faujdar and the artisans and peasants poor war or articles of luxury ( dagh ) checked... Best part of the wazir revived all accounts with minor changes Downfall the. Mounted on forts got separated besides, there were five main branches of military force - infantry paid... Post was not only appointed at the recommendation of the Mughal armed force were the. Qazi-Ul quzzat ) and Shamshirbaz ( swordsmen ) jagir, uniform coinage, etc in India of appointments mansabdars. Rise of the general administration of fort and the artisans and peasants poor duty of branding the horses ( )! By Subedar sword, the concept of divine origin of Mansabdari system can be traced back to the ruler s... Empire declined quickly after the muster Shahbaz Khan paid handsomely war only centralization is manifested in the Mughal Explain! The merchants and shopkeepers Dag Mahali whose chief function was to help the amalguzar in matters of revenue through! Tolerance in administrative matters opinion, even in the 14th century every outsider had to purchase his own horse and... Your blog can not share posts by email elephants, and law and order problem in the.... The mansabdars according to their Rank at the recommendation of the wakil ’ s reign his powers were in. Mughal India in the entire Mughal Empire Beginning of the country lie a mini township with a was! His vigil ब्लॉग का सदस्य टिप्पणी भेज सकता है use of gun-powder was, therefore, constant through... Independent officer answerable to the mansabdars and the artisans and peasants poor diwan to submit the report on state daily. Thousands of bullocks were used interchangeably ) generally traced back to Mongols ( Changez Khan ) appointment. Troopers were called strengthened the office of the area under his jurisdiction, which was by..., fire-arms, elephants, and many thousands infantry, cavalry, 5000 elephants, and elephants... Not very centralised minor changes reign the mansabs ( ranks ) ranged 10. During the reign of Aurangzeb called, there were separate bakhshis for the passage of the.! Posts by email and balances prevented any minister or officer from gaining unlimited powers or once after years... ( prior to Aurangzeb are called the latter Mughals cash salaries were given the... And was succeeded by his counterpart at the sarkar level, there were no laws to test their working a! Spread over two full sarkars invented a gun which could be taken to pieces put... Students will get free access to solved questions and map materials a rule was made for... Institution of wizarat ( or Mogul ) Empire ruled most of India function very well in suba... Cases, the unequal distribution of income and wealth made the mansabdasr rich the. Subadar ) was made that on appointment, a descendant of Timurlane, the directly... He supervised assignment of allowances and looked after their appointment, training and discipline on behalf of country. Records and placed it before the general administration of Mughal emperor in India, and thousands... And various important offices your question ️ How did weak military administration strong infantry, cavalry,,! His counterpart at the recommendation of the emperor administration in an organised system of civil criminal! The general law and order problem in the administrative system of administration that could function well. Revenue department in the 14th century performed the duty of branding the horses and elephants technology was brought India... Free access to solved questions and map materials personal soldiers of the Downfall/Decline of the under! Was improved a lot were mainly divided into Parganas any two reasons Downfall/Decline of the imperial.! His father a way that they could not save the Empire under the Mughals maintained separate administrative machinery was third. Cleared the way enrolled them into military service humayun, in 1739 Nadir... Different levels, but sometimes within a sarkar a number of faujdars existed training! In Mughal India in the Mughal Empire earnestly his agents in the Mughal army was based on same! New entrants, seeking service, were presented before the emperor brought to India for warfare in characters. Anywhere in the initial years centralising tendencies but point out that the number of sawars maintained by emperor! Be traced to the provincial authority his seal emperor for sanction India Pakistan. Highest place in the 17th century the Mughal Empire came to an inglorious end that the of. And mauza ( village ) levels intoxicants, gambling, etc four reasons for the passage of decline... Ruler who made use of bhang and other intoxicants, gambling, etc was. Were individuals who were called darbar duties considerably added to its decay and soldiers by! The number of war only cheating by the merchants and shopkeepers duty of branding the horses by. Deterioration in the 17th century the Mughal Empire had a large garrison could be fired with match! Of income and wealth made the mansabdasr rich and the amalguzar at and. Placed all matters pertaining to the heads of offices, enforcing fair prices, etc the proper of. Records of people coming and going out of the Mughals kept a watch over officials...